Saturday, December 29, 2007

The Weather (continued)

As late as the 1960s, science clearly defined the Coriolis effect as just what it is, an effect. It results from the Earth’s west to east spin. It has to be accounted for when launching a rocket. If the rocket is launched due north, it’s landing point will be east of its departure point because it will be traveling east at the same speed the Earth was moving when it departed, but as it moves north, the Earth’s speed is lessening, which means it is traveling increasing faster than the Earth is rotating. Thus, it will land east of where it took off. This is not the result of a force, it is the result of an effect due to the rotation of the Earth, and was clearly labeled as such in the dictionaries of the time. In fact, during the period of change, most dictionaries cautioned that it wasn’t a force, but merely an effect.
Now, it’s universally accepted as a force, which goes to show, science can petty much get away with anything it wants and we’ll sit here like the dummies we are and accept it.
How did the Coriolis effect become a force? It has to do with the jet stream.
For all those amateur meteorologists who’ve ever seen the majority of the clouds traveling west to east, opposite the direction the Earth is turning, and fleetingly wondered why they aren’t spinning with the Earth, the answer is coming up. The movement of the clouds, though, is nothing compared to the speed of the jet stream. First encountered by high-flying B-29s at the end of WWII, it really came into the conscious debate with the beginning of the jet age in the mid-fifties. The jet stream in the U.S. moves from west to east, providing a tail wind to jets from the west coast.
Up until the jet stream intervened, meteorology was simply fronts moving between highs and lows. Now, combined with the fact that the clouds went in an opposite direction than would be intuitively expected, the table was set for the real explanation for the wind, the Coriolis force. Instead of a rocket taking off and, due to the Earth’s spin and its diminishing circumference, landing to the east of where it took off, the rotation of the Earth was forcing the rocket to veer to the east.
Sound like the same? Sure does except now it’s not a result of the Earth turning, the Earth doing something, forcing the rocket to veer east, it's the result of the Earth's rotation forcing the rocket east and therefore the result of a force. This rote piece of nonsense, the Coriolis force, mindlessly repeated, is taken as fact and is the founding principle of meteorology. Now instead of using a realistic explanation for why clouds and the jet stream move from west to east, an explanation that is by no means difficult, one that is indisputable, we have the clouds and the jet stream being pushed east by the Coriolis force.
And once we have a force, we have something that can be measured, if only by reference to the self-referential force itself, measuring the supposed force by what it does.
Once we have something that can be measured, we have empirical science.
(To be continued)

Saturday, December 22, 2007

The Weather

Who would expect the ultimate admission that science is nothing but a bunch of consensual bull then in its treatment and ultimate acceptance of the “science” of weather?
Weather is not a science, never has been and never will be, yet science treats it as a science. Oh sure, forecasting weather patterns has become more accurate with satellite tracking, but that’s all it is, more accurate tracking of existing weather, not, shudder, forecasting, something that to science is akin to the robed arm pointing to the heavens and citing incantations.
Weather became a science, the science of meteorology, only after science prostituted itself at the throne of Newton. In return for recognition as a science, weather agreed to go along with science’s absurd insistence that the spinning planet has no effect on weather, an offshoot of Newton’s explanation for the tides, that they merely waxed and waned in response to the movements of the moon and sun. The rotation of the planet could not be affected by the weather, although we’ll clearly see it is, because if weather affected the rotation, it would have long since slowed the planet to a halt.
In short, science is too lazy to look for the actual cause of rotation, and will do anything to avoid reality.
(To be continued)

Saturday, December 15, 2007

Field Replacement (continued)

The final example of the ignorance arising from the failure to recognize the Earth’s field, and thus field replacement, is one of my favorites because it actually deals with proof of the field’s existence (when I was young, science would not even admit a planet was hot in the interior). It also deals with science’s process of monkey see, monkey say.
Telescopes have been around for hundreds of years. The most distinctive aspect of a telescope is how we use it. We point one end to the sky and peer through the other end. Always have, always will. Well, not really, because along about the time I was born, a guy named Grote Reber invented the radio telescope. This took radio signals from the sky and represented them graphically, providing a second source of information about the dots of light we see in the heavens.
By the time the radio telescope came along, Hubble’s red shift had been converted into the theory of the expanding universe (when we realign the colors in a later chapter, we’ll see that this should actually have been the theory of the contracting universe). The problem with the theory of the expanding universe was that it had not been proven conclusively, which in scientific terms means, proven to the satisfaction of the consensus. In short, all sorts of people trying to make their bones were casting around for the big bang proof.
As the radio telescope was put more and more into use, depicting stars in a new way by pointing the radio receiver at them much the same as we historically did with telescopes, it dawned on the users that there was a low level of electrical activity that registered even when the telescope was not pointing at a target. Find a blotch of empty space and this low level radio interference made its presence known. As the existence of this background radiation from outer space became widely know, the question arose, what is it, where does it come from, why is it there.
What better set up for and ah ha moment. On the one hand, science had background radiation (I don’t know how the radio signals turned into radiation, but its slowly become cosmic microwave background radiation), on the other, it had an incessant need to scientifically prove the big bang theory. Why, it was decided along about the time I graduated from law school, the background radiation was nothing more than the radiation left over from the big bang, and the big bang was now proven to be the truth. What could be greater?
Well, the crushing realization that this background radiation registered uniform while the galaxies were here and there, all over the place. If the radiation were leftover from the big bang, then it should be irregular. Oh, what to do, what to do?
Ever willing to face any and all obstacles, read possible disagreements with its own theories, science began to lobby, read Announcement of Opportunity, for something that would demonstrate its original thoughts on the background radiation were correct, and that something was the COBE satellite, which to keep costs at a minimum, was set to cost a mere thirty million, not including launching costs. The idea was that the background radiation was going through the Earth’s atmosphere, which was causing it to become regular. If the background radiation could be measured from space, it would prove to be irregular.
Now I don’t know which planet anybody else grew up on, but I grew up on the planet where the stars twinkle. The stars twinkle because of atmospheric interference. The starlight doesn’t become uniform as it passes through the atmosphere, it becomes irregular. Although I can, for some reason, never find information on what stars look like from space, I can guarantee that they don’t twinkle. Once they hit the atmosphere, they twinkle.
At least a few astronomers know this. These astronomers use the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system to see without atmospheric distortion. A computer uses models to determine the distortion on a bright guide star and then applies those distortions to a fainter object, creating an image of the fainter object as if it was not coming through the atmosphere.
If astronomers know that the atmosphere distorts, how can a bunch of them come up with a multimillion-dollar project based on the fact that the atmosphere doesn’t distort? Oh, I don’t know, maybe the same way they say anything they want and we believe them hook, line, and sinker because we’re just too afraid of science’s superior knowledge to ask a question. So ever onward and upward with the COBE satellite, the satellite that will answer our final question of where we all came from, an explosion a long time ago in a universe that didn’t yet exist.
Guess what? The experiment was a grand success. It demonstrated ripples in the cosmos, irregular background radiation that matched the irregular placement of the galaxies in space. Hooray! Science even matched up the blue radiation where there were galaxies and the red radiation where there were no galaxies along about the time I retired using a comparatively cheap balloon it floated some twenty-three miles above the Antarctic carrying an extremely sensitive microwave telescope. Hooray again!
Let’s look a little more closely at the “telescope” we’re using. It’s been demonstrated time and again that the telescope is not a telescope, but a radio telescope that simply picks up radio signals. It is estimated that radio signals are the radio signals in the environment and they can come from radon, or broadcast signals or the local garage door opening, although these radio signals are insignificant enough to be excluded. The telescope also picks up signals it zeros in on, signals from the galaxies. In what universe is it written, however, that the background signals, the 3% constant hum, comes from the area the telescope zeros in on. In short, what justifies the bald assumption that the background radiation is from space?
The second assumption is that the Earth is not emitting a field!
If we are blind to the Earth’s field, we’ll be blind to the background radiation a radio telescope is picking up, and we’ll use the mistake to further complicate our ignorant ruminations.
The radio telescope picks up the background radiation from the Earth’s emission field, proving that field exists. It is uniform because it is not moving through the atmosphere. However, when we measure the background radiation after it has gone through the atmosphere, it measures as irregular, as is the case with everything else that goes through the atmosphere.

Saturday, December 8, 2007

Field Replacement (continued)

The mechanics of field replacement are counterintuitive in a world where science never looks below the surface to ascertain what’s really happening, but the building blocks that make it intuitive are clear: a single elementary particle, the electron, with two opposing properties, at rest motion and excess affinity propensity in a universe where the two have a profound effect on each other. Excess affinity propensities attract electrons while flows of electrons release electrons into the environment. Having built a science on the observations of dead men who neither saw nor analyzed reality in a forthright way, but merely came up with ad hoc explanations for it, has produced a stunted science that is neither interested in or wants to examine what is happening, rather one that simply wants answers no matter how anomalous or inconsistent they are in relation to its other answers. Without the knowledge of the existence of fields, we end up with absurdities, two of which I would like to close the chapter with.
All matter on Earth exists in the Earth’s field. While rotation exposes all matter periodically to alternating bouts with the sun’s very strong field, the constant field we live in is generated by the Earth. That field starts out somewhere beneath the Earth’s surface and expands in an expanding sphere out and away from the Earth. Thus the further we get from the source of the field, the more the field diminishes, the diminishing occurring inversely with the square of its distance.
We are all familiar with Einstein’s obsession with relative time and space. After the Michelson Morley experiment failed and science was attempting to find a reason why, it was eventually accepted that the aether didn’t exist and motion was relative. This meant that both distance and time changed with speed. All of modern science is based on Einstein’s relative motion. For Einstein, there was no such thing as absolute motion. An observer in motion is incapable of determining the absolute motion of a second object in motion because, once the two are relative to one another, the distances of the objects, as well as the times, are relative.
Probably the most famous “proof” of this statement is, with the dawn of the space age, the very expensive sending of one clock into space while a control clock is monitored on the surface of the Earth. Because the clock in space is moving faster than the clock on the ground, the reasoning goes that the clock in space will slow down relative to the clock on the ground.
Lo and behold, the experiment was worth every penny because it did slow down. Now we know we live in a universe that no one can understand so science is free to blather on and on with the defense that the universe is stranger than we can imagine and therefore it takes bubbleheads with endless schooling to do the understanding for us.
Unfortunately, with no knowledge of the field being emitted by the Earth, we can all be informed by the abstruse utterances such an absurdity provides unless we’re actually navigators doing something in the real world.
The clocks used in the experiment are the most accurate clocks in the world, which means they are atomic clocks. An atomic clock keeps time by recording emissions from an atomic substance, meaning atoms, at the basis of the clock. What are causing these emissions? The instability of the atom as it exists in the field. The atom is decaying at a fixed rate because it’s in a fixed field. The fixed field is field replacing the electrons that make up the units in its nucleus at a steady rate. As long as the field remains the same, the rate of field replacement will remain the same.
So what happens when we change the rate of field replacement in one clock, place it in an environment with less of a field? The rate of field replacement will slow down. What’s the effect on the clock, which is driven by the decay of the constituent parts of its atoms? Lower field replacement, lower decay, fewer ticks. The clock is going to register fewer incidents of decay than one in a stronger field and is therefore going to actually slow down.
In the experiment, one atomic clock is left in a strong field, and another, several hundred miles above the Earth, in a weaker field, and the one in the weaker field, as a result of the lesser field replacement, simply doesn’t register as many events as the one on the ground, and we base our entire science on this idiocy of ignorance.
Even though our bubbleheads universally accept the clock experiment as absolute prove of relative everything, a Frenchman by the name of Sagnac demonstrated in 1913 that an absolute measurement could be obtained of a moving object by a moving object, inventing the ring interferometer that makes accurate air travel possible today, but hey, don’t expect our bubbleheads flying all over the world for expensive conferences to look up from their bubblebooks to see reality.
(To be continued)

Friday, November 30, 2007

Field Replacement (continued)

Weather is all about area. For reasons we’ll discuss in the next chapter, the sheets of ice flecs begin traveling towards the Poles. Limiting ourselves to the North Pole, the further north the sheets of ice flecs move, the less area they have to occupy. This is a simple function of geometry. With less area to occupy, the sheets of ice flecs are forced down into the lower, slower moving, warmer atmosphere. The warmer air begins field replacing the ice flecs. Here the field replacement mirrors the field replacement that occurred at the equator. The individual atoms of oxygen and hydrogen are no longer rising, and are being forced into proximity with one another. They start to recombine into water, and in the process, shed the three separate clouds of orbiting electrons. Only needing a single cloud, each forming molecule of water produces massive numbers of excess electrons in the ambient field.
If the process is rapid, we will see a violent thunderstorm in which the ambient field is so flooded with electrons that they have only one place to go, the Earth, in the form of lightning. And, of course, this explains another one of those unanswered questions scientists spend so much time avoiding, how heat travels in the atmosphere.
As the sheets of ice flecs move toward the Poles, those that remain pass out of the direct rays of the sun and are slowly field replaced directly into snow and ice. Trees don’t grow in these barren wastes of swirling weather. Does that give us a clue as to why things grow? Once again field replacement is the answer. While science gets many things bassackward, its explanation of the sun’s rays on the Earth is certainly the best case.
Science tells us the sun’s rays are absorbed by the Earth in the morning and are radiated away (in precisely the same amount) in the evening. This, of course, ignores the significance of field replacement and turns our understanding of what is happening on Earth on its ear.
In reality, as the sun rises, its rays hit the earth and begin the process of field replacement. This means that the earth, colder at night, has produced excess affinity propensities that have captured electrons out of the night air, causing that air to lose temperature (electrons equal heat). All of the available electrons in the ambient field have been attracted into the ground.
As the sun rises, this process is reversed and the sun's emissions begin to replace the excess affinity propensities in the earth, the electrons are now emitted back into the atmosphere, but what path do they take? When the environment isn’t a barren waste, they are going to pass through the vegetation in the environment. The most popular example is morning glories opening at dawn. However, the ramifications of this process are far reaching because it is this transfer of electrons between the ground and the atmosphere that produces the basis for all life, with, as we shall see, the definition of life the formation of atoms and molecules of atoms around electrical flows in the environment.
The paths the electrons take during morning field replacement is the basis of the dense forests and lush landscapes that populate the temperate regions of the world. As the day proceeds into night, the process is reversed. As noted, the ground, once it ceases to be field replaced by the sun’s rays, flips into a state of excess affinity propensity and begins to satisfy that excess by drawing ambient electrons out of the atmosphere, bringing on the evening chill (where, the atmosphere begins to draw electrons out of our skin).
Science think, where the sun’s rays warm us and their disappearance cools us is simply more monkey see, monkey say, and doesn’t provide any mechanism for why things get hot and cold. Field replacement does. The constant rhythm of the changing excess affinity propensities between the earth and the atmosphere regulates the flow of electrons between the two, turning our environment into what we know it to be, a dynamic, organic reality instead of the passive, sun absorbing and releasing barren landscape of science think.
(To be continued)

Monday, November 26, 2007

Field Replacement (continued)

When we boil water, the flame over which it sits is field replacing the electrons holding the atoms of hydrogen and oxygen together. Those atoms, now lighter than air, start to rise. However, because they are rising into a diminishing field, the atoms immediately turn back into water as the oxygen and hydrogen atoms recombine. If we put the process under pressure, the atoms don’t recombine, become an explosive gas and can perform work, as in a steam engine. However, as the steam expands, it immediately condenses as the recombination of the atoms draws electrons out of the ambient field.
However, leaving water out in the sun causes the sun to do the field replacing. The process is not only less rapid as boiling water, the atoms of oxygen and hydrogen are not rising into a diminishing field. We see empirical classification at work here with heat causing water to disappear with the two equaling evaporation, but the outcome of each is quite different. When water is rapidly boiled and evaporates into a diminishing field, the oxygen and hydrogen atoms come back together as water. When water is evaporated in sunlight, the oxygen and hydrogen atoms don’t get a chance to reunite, but rather remain separate. When they do reunite, they do produce rain along with a heck of a lot of lightning.
Let’s look at the evaporation process at the equator, where most weather originates. Nuclei of the oxygen and hydrogen atoms are held together into water molecules by the excess affinity propensities of their nuclei and the cloud of orbiting electrons that surround them. As the sun strikes the surface of the equatorial waters, it replaces the clouds of orbiting electrons, and loosens the attraction of the excess affinity propensities by replacing that attraction with its own field. As hydrogen is much lighter than oxygen, it immediately rises into the atmosphere, but because the oxygen is also lighter than the atmosphere, it follows. However, because the two are moving at different rates, they don't have a chance to recombine.
When they rise high enough, they freeze, but into what? As science has no idea about these massive fields of frozen oxygen and hydrogen atoms that comprise the upper atmosphere, I am forced to make up a name for them, and I ended up referring to them as ice flecs, the slight misspelling designed to distinguish them from ice flecks, which actually are ice.
Looking more closely at the field replacement process, when the atoms of oxygen and hydrogen separate, what is happening? All nuclei need a cloud of orbiting electrons. The water molecule has a single cloud of orbiting electrons, When the three atoms separate, each atom needs its own field of orbiting electrons, so what before field replacement required a single cloud of orbiting electrons requires three fields of orbiting electrons after field replacement.
As the hydrogen and oxygen atoms are being field replaced at the equator, they are pulling huge amounts of electrons out of what is an electron abundant area, the electrons produced by the rays of the sun breaking down on the surface of the equatorial oceans. What does this mean? It means that the rising evaporate, the individual atoms, are carrying with them one heck of a lot of heat, or in simple terms, energy and this is why I call the result ice flecs. As they rise into the atmosphere, there is, on a purely physical basis, more and more area available. This causes these giant sheets of ice flecs to cling closer together as a result of the increasing affinity propensities of the larger area. They become the raw material of the weather, and while I don’t want to infringe on the material in the next chapter, we still need to see what happens when the sheets of ice flecs themselves become field replaced.
(To be continued)

Saturday, November 17, 2007

Field Replacement (continued)

The same effect occurs when we leave frozen food in the freezer too long, only it’s called freezer burn, and with good reason, because too much cold for too long a period of time literally sucks the electrons out of the surface of things. This is the same process that occurs when we put a match too close to our skin. To see the analogy, all we have to do is examine pictures of frostbite victims. The flesh is actually in a burnt condition, and requires burn treatment to heal (if the appendage doesn’t just fall off). This effect, where field replacement produces both the sensations we feel when we are burnt or freezing is a part of popular understanding, even among children. I refer to the trick where the subject is told he is going to receive a sever burn on the back. When he takes his shirt off, the trickster prepares a heated knife or merely strikes a match, then applies an ice cube to the back. The subject actually feels like he’s been burnt.
While field replacement has a part in water boiling, the steam from the evaporating water has to be distinguished from the process where water is field replaced that occurs at the equator, or for that matter, in any body of water sitting under hot sunlight.
(To be continued)

Saturday, November 10, 2007

Field Replacement (contnued)

But what happens if there aren’t enough electrons in the ambient field? To explore this, we need look no further than our refrigerator. How does the interior of the box get cold? For this we need a refrigerant, which is, surprise, a compressible gas. The process of refrigeration begins with a compressor that compresses the gas. Of course, we’ll need a fan at the point of compression because the compression process releases a lot of heat, a requirement of the refrigerant that it be able to absorb vast quantities of electrons.
With the electrons compressed out of the gas by the process of forcing the nuclei of the gas atoms together, field replacing each other’s affinity propensities and removing the need for the nuclei’s orbiting electrons, the gas is sent into the insulted box. The insulation is a physical substance that resists the transfer of electrons and therefore is capable of reducing the electrons in the ambient field.
As the refrigerant circulates in the box, it removes the ambient electrons from the field, and then begins to remove the electrons that are orbiting the molecules of air. As the movement of electrons represents heat, the removal of electrons represents the removal of heat. While the ability of the box to lose heat is dependent on the ability of its insulation to prevent the transference of electrons from outside the box to inside the box, the box will become cold as the electrons are leached out of it by the expanding nuclei of the atoms in the refrigerant and then compressed out in heat which is then removed from the area by the fan.
Now we put a tender morsel of meat in the box. What happens to it?
The air in the box, already having given up its ambient electrons, and also some of the electrons orbiting its molecules, and even atoms, to the incessant demands of the expanding gas in the refrigerant, now has a new source of electrons, the electrons in the morsel of meat. In an attempt to balance the affinity propensity deficits, the meat gives up its electrons, cooling in the process, the definition of cooler being less activity, less movement of electrons.
Throw in a six pack of beer, some hot dogs and hamburgers, and the process continues, with the expanding gas of the refrigerant faithfully removing electrons from the box and, in the compression process, dropping them outside to be dissipated by the compressor's fan. We can adjust the level of coolness in the box by adjusting the amount of electrons we want withdrawn from it, calibrated for our senses in the form of temperature.
Alongside the refrigerator box, the increasingly popular separate box for taking temperatures down below the freezing point, is set to withdraw electrons to the point that ice and other products freeze. Even in the freezing of ice, we can see a unique process that results from field replacement. Science has long marveled that the combination of two hydrogen and an oxygen atom can form into either a gas, a liquid or a solid, the solid being the ice that freezing water produces. Science also notes that in the early part of freezing, the ice actually gains volume, expanding in the ice tray. What causes this?
We’ll see in a moment how water’s evaporation is not what’s happening when the sun beats down on the surface of a pool, it’s field replacement. In short, one of the biggest failures of science is to explain how moisture gets in the air, and thus weather itself, a subject we’ll take up in detail in the next chapter. But when it goes the other way, when water freezes, field replacement is working to withdraw electrons from the orbiting clouds around the molecules and atoms that make up the water. It is also simultaneously withdrawing electrons from the orbiting clouds of the air itself, to the point that both the air and the water have deficits that need to be made up by the nuclei the atoms that make up each field replacing each other.
But a funny thing happens on the way to this molecular field replacement. Air is about 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, the same oxygen that makes up the water molecule. As the air and the water intermingle in the freezing process, the excess affinity propensities of some of the oxygen atoms in the air replace the excess affinity propensities of some of the oxygen atoms in the water, dragging the molecule of air along with it into the freezing process, the reason that water appears to have air bubbles, floats, and expands in size.
However, if we leave the ice in the freeze too long, field replacement begins to take its toll, with the ice slowly losing both molecules of air and molecules of water to the persistent expansion of the refrigerant. This shrinks the remaining oxygen and hydrogen atoms into smaller and smaller slivers, similar in appearance to hail, an analogy that will become clear in the next chapter.
(To be continued)

Friday, November 2, 2007

Field Replacement (continued)

While it’s all well and good to describe what’s theoretically possible using the single particle, our converted electron, with its opposing properties of at rest motion and affinity propensity to explain what no one else has ever been able to explain, namely what’s going on when you look at the burning logs in your fireplace, what’s mechanically going on, not what’s going on in science’s limited vocabulary of ignition point, oxygen combustion, the (humorous) claim that what isn’t left in the fireplace went up in gases, we can also look around at every day phenomena to get an idea of what field replacement is, what’s going on when one set of affinity propensities replaces another set of affinity propensities.
We can start off with something that is very simple, something that we first notice as children fixing the flat tires of our bikes. When we get the tire patched, we have to pump air into it. We take a little foot pump and start pumping away. What’s the first thing we notice, other than the pumping is making us tired but the tire is pumping up? If we feel the tire, which we always do to see how firm it’s getting, we notice that it is hotter than it was before we started pumping.
Where’s the heat coming from?
If we look in our science books, we find that compression of a gas produces heat. This, however, is monkey see, monkey say science, the proclivity of science to simply describe the result of what is happening and then pretending it knows what’s happening. While there’s certainly a body of theory out there dealing with compression and gases, when you boil it down, it’s still just describing effects of a cause. Nothing out there tells us mechanically what is happening to cause heat when a gas, the air in our tire, is compressed.
However, if we look at the pumping process in light of field replacement, we can clearly see exactly what is happening. Heat is movement, to be exact, the movement of electrons. When we put the unlit match deeper into the field of the lit match, the match ignited, and the motion of the electrons produced heat. But we don’t always need fire to produce heat. Heat is produced in all sorts of ways. However, no matter how it is produced, it is still an increase in the movement of electrons, or more to the point, an increase in the number of electrons in a given area.
When we compress the atoms, or molecules of atoms, of a gas, what are we doing? We are forcing the nuclei of the atoms into closer proximity. What is the result of this? The excess affinity propensities of the artificially compressed nuclei begin to replace each other’s affinity propensity, removing the need for the nuclei to satisfy those excess affinity propensities with orbiting electrons. With more stable affinity propensities replacing the less stable affinity propensities of the orbiting electrons, those electrons take off and become ambient. As they are all being released at the source of compression, they add heat to the immediate environment, heat that soon dissipates with the departing ambient electrons.
Now let’s reverse the process. I just cleaned my computer keys today using a can of compressed air, although decompressing a gas, say letting the air out of a tire, has the same effect. As I pressed the nozzle of the can, letting a blast of air rid the keys of dust, the can became cold. Why did this effect occur?
When the air is being decompressed, the nuclei of its atoms are returning to their normal distances from one another. They are no longer being artificially forced into a closer proximity. That means that these nuclei now have an excess affinity propensity that has to be satisfied by attracting electrons out of the ambient field. What constitutes the ambient field? In my case, the air around the top of the can where the nuclei were regaining their normal distances. All of a sudden, instead of an abundance of electrons, there was a deficit of electrons, and as electrons always seek out the strongest excess affinity propensity, and the strongest excess affinity propensity was the need of the decompressing nuclei for orbiting electrons, the decompressing nuclei were sucking electrons out of the ambient field, then some out of the molecules of air immediately surrounding them, some out of the surface nuclei of the can, and of course, some out of the surface flesh of my hand.
This process will continue until all the separate sources of excess affinity propensities have been satisfied. Slowly, electrons in the ambient field will migrate to the congeries of excess affinity propensities, in the decompressing nuclei, the air, the can and my skin, and everything will return to normal.
But what happens if there aren’t enough electrons in the ambient field?
(To be continued)

Sunday, October 28, 2007

Field Replacement (continued)

Now let’s return to our single flow and see how it affects the orbiting electrons of an atom, the basic reason the phenomenon is called field replacement. For purposes of visualization, we can imagine a single atom with a cloud of orbiting electrons whizzing around its nucleus. We bring our single flow of electrons close to the cloud of orbiting electrons. The nucleus has attracted only so many orbiting electrons as its excess affinity propensity will allow. What happens when the flow of electrons, with an electron at every point in the flow, comes close to the cloud of orbiting electrons?
The electrons orbiting the flow have their affinity propensities balanced by their at rest motion. At the first chance, their at rest motion is going to gain the upper hand and the electrons will fly off, ambient in the field. In like manner, the electrons orbiting the nucleus have their at rest motion balancing their affinity propensity and at the first chance the at rest motion can gain the upper hand, they too will fly off, ambient in the field.
Thus, when the more stationary electron in the flow satisfies the affinity propensity of the nucleus of the atom, one electron to be exact because we have only a single flow of electrons, both the electron orbiting the flow at that point and one electron orbiting the nucleus will no longer be necessary. The affinity propensity of the flow is now satisfying the affinity propensity of the nucleus, or to be more exact, the more stable affinity propensities of the nucleus and the flow have replaced the less stable affinity propensities of the orbiting electrons, and no longer with an affinity propensity to attract them, they are off in search of other affinity propensities.
If we double the flow, two electrons are replaced, triple it and three electrons are replaced. Of course, in the real world, we’re dealing with billions of electron flows and billions of orbiting electrons. Note that a single flow can replace the electrons in multiple atoms because at any point in the flow there is an affinity propensity that is more stable than the affinity propensities of the orbiting electrons. That’s why the electrons replaced by the affinity propensities of the flow will join a flow of electricity and why certain elements can become magnetic, the orbiting electrons being replaced by the electric flows becoming electrons orbiting all the atoms in the element.
Let’s revisit our wooden matches, where we had one match head with a flame, the other without. When the matches are a foot apart, the expanding flows of electrons are not strong enough to penetrate the physical surface of the sulfur. They are merely being deflected and therefore not producing field replacement. However, as we move the unlit match closer to the flame, the flows of electrons begin to penetrate the physical surface and begin to field replace the sulfur at the match’s head. As the orbiting electrons are replaced, the try to head off, but they too have to contend with the physical surface of the sulfur. At the outset, they can’t all breach the surface and thus not only are the flows of electrons replacing orbiting electrons, but the replaced electrons are milling about, also replacing the need for orbiting electrons in the sulfur.
The field replacement continues apace until the physical surface of the sulfur can no longer contain the electrons, and the match head ignites, its mass of ambient electrons now becoming directed by the combustion process of the match itself. This combustion is itself a clearly defined process in which the orbiting electrons, now being replaced on a massive scale, cannot all exit the match head at the same time. As a result, one mass of them is released in an expanding sphere. During the instant between this expanding sphere and the next expanding sphere, the massive mass of replaced electrons in the match head regroups and organizes for another mass exit from the match head. This reorganization can be viewed as an instant of contraction, the release of the expanding spheres being a point of expansion. This cycle of contraction and expansion is what gives the totality of expanding spheres produced by a single event frequency, with the rate of combustion (or if we are producing them with electricity, oscillation) determining frequency.
(To be continued)

Saturday, October 20, 2007

Field Replacement

The concept of field replacement arises from the single particle with its two opposing properties of at rest motion and affinity propensity. Broadly stated, field replacement is the principle that stationary fields replace less stationary fields. Specifically, more stationary affinity propensities replace less stationary affinity propensities.
What are stationary affinity propensities?
One stationary affinity propensity is found in the nucleus of the atom, the excess affinity propensity of the combined units that attracts electrons into orbit around it. A less stationary affinity propensity is found in the orbiting electrons, where the affinity propensities of the electrons are balanced by their at rest motion.
However, the electrons with the most stable affinity propensities are, surprisingly, electrons in a flow of electrons, either in the form of electricity, magnetism, or the electromagnetic frequency spectrum. Let’s take a close look at a flow of electrons by starting out looking at a flow of water.
Assume we’re sitting beside a quietly flowing stream. We look out at the water and it appears to be perfectly still. However, we know it isn’t because every once in a while, a leaf will flow lazily by. What makes the water look still is that all the molecules of water are identical. When one molecule of water vacates a point in the stream, an identical molecule that follows it takes its position. While all the molecules of water are drifting with the flow of the stream, they all look like they are stationary because at any moment, the molecule that comes behind is replacing each molecule.
This is also the case in a flow of electrons. While science has a pretty hazy, and many times contradictory, view of an electron, we know the electron as our single elementary particle with its two opposing properties. We also know that all electrons are identical. Thus, we can picture a single flow of electrons. At any point in the flow there is always an electron. It is not the same electron at any one time, but since all electrons are alike, the fact that at any point in the flow there is always an electron means that for all intents and purposes, at any point in a flow of electrons, there is what is basically a stable electron, an electron’s presence that is stationary.
Now, let’s take a moment and look closely at the effect of a single flow of electrons. At any point in the flow, there is an excess affinity propensity due to the fact that at any point in the flow there is always an electron. The electron’s at rest motion is being satisfied by the forward motion of the flow, and to some extent, each electron's affinity propensity is partially used up by its presence next to the electron in front of it and the electron in back of it, but since all electrons are involved in a directed field, a field that has obtained its direction from an activity at its source, most of its affinity propensity is excess affinity propensity.
What do we know about excess affinity propensities? Electrons in the ambient field will seek excess affinity propensities out so that they can satisfy their own excess affinity propensities. In the case of the flow of electrons, how could electrons in the ambient field best satisfy the excess affinity propensities of both?
At each point on the flow, the excess affinity propensity would attract an orbiting electron but since each point in the flow is next to the point ahead and behind it, the only way the orbiting electron could satisfy the excess affinity propensities is if it orbited at a right angle the flow. With every point in the flow attracting an electron out of the ambient field, all of the electrons orbiting the flow at right angles make up what we measure to be the inductive field, the flow of electrons around a primary flow.
Why not attract electrons out of the ambient field at a left angle, which is to say, why does induction follow the right hand rule, the rule where, if you put the thumb of your right hand in the direction of the primary flow and curl your fingers, the curl of your fingers will give you the direction of the inductive flow. For reasons that will become clear when we discuss planetary orbiting and rotation, all motion in the universe accords with a right hand rule. If we point the thumb of our right hand in the direction of the North Pole and curl our fingers, our fingers will curl in the direction of planetary rotation and, if we extend our mind to the solar system, orbiting. I suspect induction follows rotation.
In any event, let’s add a second flow to the first flow. What happens? With twice the excess affinity propensity at every point in the flow, each point attracts two orbiting electrons out of the ambient field that orbit at right angles, doubling the inductive flow. Add a third flow and the inductive flow triple what it would be for a single flow. In short, the inductive flow is proportional to the primary flow, the basic rule of induction, and a fact of utmost importance when we later describe the mechanism of gravity.
(To be continued)

Saturday, October 13, 2007

The Atom

Combustion is the field. It is the process by which matter unravels, first the electrons that hold molecules and atoms into physical matter depart, then the units of the nuclei separate as the field of the combustion process replaces the affinity propensities holding them together, and then the actual electrons in the nuclei themselves are emitted in expanding spheres.
When the conglomerations of the heaviest atoms that formed in the absence of a field begin to ignite, some are small, the size of moons or planets, others are large, the size of stars. Regardless of size, however, they all have one thing in common: they are cooling. And they are all cooling at the same rate. This means that the larger the sphere of the heaviest element is, the longer it will take to cool.
As the smaller spheres start to cool, the rate of combustion on their surfaces slows. This means that the process that is occurring on the surface when it is combusting like the sun is today reverses itself. A point is reached where the electrons of the unit can no longer be separated by the lower field and thus the units begin to retain their original size. The most important result is that, as the field passes through various degrees of cooling, as what is becoming a planet is cooling and crusting over, the units are able to increasingly stay together.
The resulting nuclei will not be as complex as the heaviest atom that forms in the absence of a field, but they will range from the single unit, which science labels hydrogen, on up the field of elements to the radioactive elements.
Before we discuss why radioactive elements are radioactive, we should note that this model tells us a lot about the core of the Earth. Once sufficient crust has formed to shield the heaviest atoms that can form, those atoms' surface rate of combustion slows. This means that the core of the Earth is comprised of the heaviest atoms that can form in the absence of a field, the surface of this core burning intensely but not with the rate that occurs on the surface of the sun. This core is surrounded by the crust, elements whose atoms have fewer units in their nuclei, the range of nonradioactive elements, through which the core's expanding sphere passes, reaching up to the surface, which contains radioactive elements.
So why are some elements radioactive? The answer is once again found in the field, which on Earth is a combination of the internally produced field, the combustion on the surface of the core, and the sun. The elements that exist on Earth exist in this combined field. However, there are boundary elements that are the heaviest elements that can exist in a particular field. Because the field is what causes elements to break down, the elements that exist in a particular field are those elements that can hold themselves together solidly in that field and those elements that aren’t stable in the field because the field is constantly attempting to break them down, field replace them in the terms of the next chapter.
Thus, on Earth we have heavy elements such as uranium that are at the boundary of the Earth’s field. Elements that have fewer units in their nuclei are stable, while elements with more units in their nuclei simply don’t exist (or perhaps do momentarily under laboratory conditions). This means that in all likelihood, uranium, which is a boundary element on Earth, would be stable in the much weaker field of Pluto, which is both cold and distant from the sun’s field. Perhaps the manmade californium is the radioactive element on Pluto, the boundary element, and uranium is stable.
On the other side of the scale, the scalding surface of Mercury would not even allow uranium to exist, and the boundary element, the radioactive element would be much lighter, perhaps something like tungsten. (Synthetic radioactive elements, isotopes, that don’t exist naturally, are not boundary elements by rather forced elements that are unstable in a given field.)
The atom here built or modeled on the basis of a single particle with the two opposing properties of at rest motion and affinity propensity fits all the requirements of the atom we need to construct reality and find in reality. It explains solid matter, and in fact is one of the three constructions the particle with opposing properties can form. It explains weight, and the basic feature of gravity, why atoms of different complexity fall at the same rate buy require different forces to move against gravity, the mechanics of which will be shown when we describe what gravity is. The atom accounts for decay and matter’s ability to produce light, both of which will become clear in the next chapter. Above all, it does away with the need for the made-up strong force and provides an explanation for what moves orbiting electrons.
What about magnetism?
The nucleus of an atom has an excess of affinity propensity that attracts electrons into orbit around the nuclei. However, there is one situation in which the nuclei have formed into solid matter while still having an excess of affinity propensities. This means that the affinity propensities cannot be satisfied by orbiting electrons, but can be satisfied by sharing electrons. The magnetic material attracts an external cloud of orbiting electrons. The electrons travel in one end of the magnet and pass by the nuclei of the atoms in the magnet, replacing the nuclei’s excess affinity propensities as it does so. It exists the opposite end of the magnet, travels in lines outside the magnet, and reenters at the opposite end once again.
Passing a conducting circuit through the orbiting electrons will cause the electrons to tip into the circuit, producing electricity. An element that isn’t naturally magnetized has the excess affinity propensities of the nuclei of its atoms satisfied by orbiting electrons. However, if it comes close to a magnet, it will lose some of those orbiting electrons to the flow from the magnet and itself become magnetized. In like manner, if an electric coil is wrapped around the metal, the electricity in the coil will do the same thing, magnetize what wouldn’t ordinarily be magnetic.

Saturday, October 6, 2007

The Atom (continued)

When we last left the unit, all of the electrons’ affinity propensity in the unit could hold their at rest motion in check but wasn’t sufficient to cause another electron with its at rest motion to overcome its at rest speed and therefore, it would reach its optimal size and cease to grow. If it were not a part of the massive matter formation that was going on in the area whose absence of a field promoted matter formation, it would attract ambient electrons into orbit around it. This is because while it doesn’t have enough affinity propensity to capture electrons, it has enough to alter their paths and this excess affinity propensity would cause enough electrons to orbit it to balance out its excess affinity propensity. The orbiting electrons have not given up their at rest motion, but their affinity propensities have been captured by the unit so that the unit’s affinity propensities are balanced, or in better vernacular, used up.
However, the unit is not alone, it is among trillions of quickly forming units, and ambient electrons move to the place where there is the greatest excess affinity propensity. With all the units forming, there won’t be any ambient electrons to orbit the unit. However, in this world, excess affinity propensities are constantly seeking something to balance their excess affinity propensities, use it up. In the case of newly formed units, all with an excess affinity propensity, there is only one source of affinity propensity available, and that’s the excess affinity propensities of other units in the area.
Thus, after the unit is formed, it starts to conglomerate with other units, each unit using up the other’s excess affinity propensity. Just like its own formation is limited by the number of electrons that can be held together against their at rest motion, the new nucleus is limited by the amount of excess affinity propensity it has left to attract other units. While there is no force opposing the formation of the units into a nucleus, each time a unit joins the nucleus, it adds excess affinity propensity to the overall nucleus, but the overall nucleus does not have the sum of the excess affinity propensities of its units because the excess affinity propensities are slowly being satisfied, used up, not in holding the nucleus together but simply because they are in a contiguous state. Because all nuclei are made up of identical units, the resulting nuclei are identical, each hold the same number of units.
This leads to a startling conclusion. All elements, no matter how heavy, which is to say, no matter how many units it has in its nucleus, all started out as part of the most complex, the heaviest atom that can exist, the atom formed in the absence of a field. It also should be noted that this nucleus has, as of yet, no orbiting electrons and while it does not have an overall excess affinity propensity, it still has an excess affinity propensity sufficient to bind itself onto other nuclei and enter the process of physical matter formation.
Physical matter is the matter we experience in our ordinary lives. When we look to the heavens, we see that the matter has all been formed in spheres. The explanation for this is the same as the explanation for the expanding sphere. Expanding spheres expand spherically because electrons are being emitted in all directions and all directions is a sphere. So too in matter formation, where the nuclei conglomerate in all surface areas and all surface areas forms a sphere.
The result is the formation of spheres of varying sizes, some the size of planets, others the size of stars, that exist quietly in a seam of space that has an absence of a field. That seem, fed by the breaking down emissions of stars from every direction, continues to allow matter formation to occur so long as there is an absence of a field and a source of material, the electrons that are the broken down emission fields. When we look at the cosmos, we see that these seams, the matter formation fields for the galaxies, can be of varying sizes, but are all quite large. In a dynamic universe filled with galaxies rich in stars producing emission fields, the quiet time, the matter drifting as conglomerations of atoms, will not last forever. Just like our two matches, one lit, the other quiet, moving closing to a field, becoming immersed deeper into an emission field, results in ignition. All it takes is for one of these conglomerations of atoms to ignite just like it only takes one atom of phosphorous in the match to ignite, to ignite contiguous conglomerations of matter which in turn will ignite the conglomerations contiguous to it and before long the galaxy lights up, springs into existence.
I’ll wait until discussing solar system movement to describe galactic rotation, how it starts and how it is powered. For now, we’ll jump to the solar system to see what happens to the most complex of atoms formed in the absence of a field when it is caught up in the maelstroms of combustion.
(To be continued)

Saturday, September 29, 2007

The Atom (continued)

I haven’t, and won’t be going into the conventions used to explain the operation of a battery, the twists and turns that allow science to convert chemical energy into electrical energy and then electrical energy back into chemical energy, just as I won’t be going into the conventions of the Standard Model that torture the explanation of atomic decay. As we see the operation of a single particle with two opposing properties, these made-up and agreed-to conventions will simply slip away as being unnecessary, with at rest motion providing the explanation for the conventional process of electricity that requires electrons to flow in the opposite direction of the current and the conventional processes of atomic decay which have all sorts of made-up particles converting into other made-up particles.
The basic unit of matter, as opposed to the basic particle of matter, is the unit the basic particles form. As all basic particles, and I’ll start to refer them to as electron with at rest motion and affinity propensity, as all electrons have the same amount of at rest motion and affinity propensity, units, under given conditions, are identical in size, with each containing the same number of electrons. The unit is made up of electrons whose affinity propensities have overcome their at rest motion, given identical conditions.
They are physical matter whereas the electron is only big enough to define nonexistence.
Now, note that I said that they are the same size, contain the same number of electrons, given identical conditions. What are the conditions in which a unit of matter exists?
The condition that controls the unit of matter’s size, and even existence, is the field in which that unit exists. While this foreshadows the next chapter on field replacement, it won’t hurt to introduce broad concepts of field, and more specifically, the expanding sphere, which is a concept that we will have to become familiar with because fields expand in all directions and all directions form a sphere.
To introduce fields and expanding spheres, I will use two wooden matches, wooden because they burn a little longer than paper matches and allow us time to perform the simple task of explanation. If we strike one of the matches, what happens? The obvious answer is, the prosperous tip ignites, but note ignite is just a term we use to define the point at which something begins to undergo combustion. All matter has ignition points at which first its molecules and then its atoms begin to break down, come apart.
When the match is ignited, however, it begins to emit light and as light is a small part of the electromagnetic frequency field, we can say the field begins to leave the surface of the match head. Now, science will tell us that the heat and light that make up this field are not only two different things, they are things of no substance. However, as everything we can measure has to be made up of the newly defined electron, what the match head is emitting is a field composed of those electrons. (As we move through the book, we will find that the electron with its two opposing properties can only form into three structures, the atom we will construct in this chapter, the electromagnetic emission field, which we will construct out of measurable facts when we deal with gravity, and the structure that is our minds, which we will construct in that area of the book.)
How can we describe the field the match head is emitting? First, it’s being emitted in all directions, except where it’s blocked, which is at the match stem and our fingers holding it. All directions form a sphere. Spheres are precisely measurable. Their surface area is four times pi times the radius squared. We have to view what is going on around the match head in terms of the field emitted. At each instance, the field that is being emitted gets a little larger as the field behind it is being emitted. While the natural tendency is to call each of the emissions packets, it would be inaccurate because, while each emitted field is connected to the electrons that make it up, it is connected to the electrons making up the field emitted prior to it and will be connected to the electrons making up the field that will be emitted after it.
What we see around the match head is a series of emitted fields, each with a different property, and that property is presence. As each emitted field is precisely measurable, we know the precise presence of each field when compared to the fields ahead of and behind it. As the measurement of the surface area of all the fields have 4 and pi in common, those measurements can be eliminated. The area of a field is determined by the square of the field’s distance from its source, which is common to all the fields.
What does this mean in practical terms? Since the area of the field is increasing with the square of its distance from its source, the field that was emitted has to cover an increasing area, and that means the field is diminishing with the square of its distance from where it was emitted. If that measurement sounds familiar, it’s because it’s the measurement for gravity. In any event, we are concerned here with the presence of the field, and that presence is diminishing with the square of the distance from its source. This is an expanding sphere and I can’t impress expanding spheres enough because they not only explain gravity, they explain how we can see what we see, both subjects addressed later on.
Here, we are only concerned about what is happening to the field, as evidenced by its presence, and we find that the heat and light, expanding over the surface of an expanding sphere, is diminishing inversely with the square of the distance from the sphere’s source, the radius of the sphere. This little fact, that light diminishes inversely with the square of its distance, is an inconvenient fact to an astronomy that likes to brag it can see from the beginning of time to the end of the universe. Anything that diminishes inversely with the square of its distance eventually expands out of existence, putting the bogus parallax measurements on which all star distances are measured in deep question (the rate of all possible errors in parallax is almost six times the best measurement).
How does this diminishing field affect the atom we are constructing out of units?
We have one match lit and emitting a field that is diminishing inversely with the square of its distance from the source of the field, the match head. If we take the second match and hold it say five inches from the first, nothing happens. However, if we start to move the second match head toward the first match, what are we doing? We are immersing the match into a stronger field the closer we come to the first match. Soon we get deep enough into the first match’s field that the binding holding the molecules and even the atoms together can no longer do so, for reasons explained in the next chapter. The second match reaches its ignition point and bursts into flame.
The point of this exercise is to demonstrate what I meant by “given identical conditions.” We live in fields that have many sources. The sun’s field, of course, is pretty evident, but the Earth is also emitting a field, even if science doesn’t recognize it. It’s common sense that something with a molten core would be emitting, but science never follows its conclusions through, with scientific fields being so narrow that the boundary of one never conflicts with the boundary of another (unless its mass gravity, with which no science can conflict).
When we measure the matter on the surface of the sun, we measure hydrogen, the source of science’s analogy of the sun to a hydrogen bomb (brilliant analogy that). We are measuring hydrogen in a way, because hydrogen is composed, or assumed to be composed of, a single unit, and a single unit is what would result if matter were placed in the highest field in nature, the surface of the sun. No matter what the sun is composed of, or what happens to fall into the sun, the matter is immediately reduced on the surface first to its molecules, then its atoms and then its units. What happens to the units? The units are themselves unraveling, which is to say, the at rest motion of the electrons making up the units is overcoming the affinity propensities of those electrons and those electrons are escaping the surface of the sun traveling at their at rest speed, the speed of light or the electromagnetic emission field. A science that doesn’t think matter emits what it is composed of when it is reduced by combustion isn’t a science, it’s a fantasy world.
Now we get our first glimpse of the cycle of the universe. If the basic unit of matter unravels in a strong field, how does that matter form in the first place, how do the affinity propensities overcome the at rest motion so they form into the units?
As the electrons come apart on the surface of the sun, or on any star for that matter, they form into a structure dictated by their properties, which we’ll describe when we discuss gravity. They begin to expand over the surface of an expanding sphere and as they do so, they diminish inversely with the square of the distance traveled. The same number of electrons covers greater and greater areas of the surface of the sphere. They reach a point at which they cannot maintain their cohesion on that surface and they began to break apart, the emission field begins to break down, producing freely moving electrons which I refer to as ambient electrons because we live in a world of ambient electrons and they explain a lot of the phenomena we experience and will be describing.
In space however, we have to assume that there are areas that contain no fields. It is this absence of a field that is the “given identical conditions” in which the units originally form to produce the atom that is the predecessor of all the atoms that we find in our periodic table of elements.
The cycle of the universe is quite simple: Matter formation, combustion, expanding emission field, dissipation and matter reformation. What happens between combustion and matter reformation are the galaxies we see, the solar systems that give rise to life, in short, the universe, which is a constant engine of the birth and movement of matter that gives rise to life.
So how do the basic units in the absence of a field form into matter and what happens to them when they combust?
(To be continued)

Friday, September 21, 2007

The Atom (continued)

It’s clear that Rutherford took certain criteria that his model of an atom had to meet and then designed the atom to meet those criteria, but by failing to take into consideration the likes repel aspect of putting protons together in the nucleus and accounting for the motion of the electrons around the nucleus, his model is insufficient. There’s another area in which Rutherford’s model failed. That was in modeling an atom that could produce light, a failure that a whole new field of science, quantum mechanics, was created to gloss over.
We want to build an atom that explains solid matter and accounts for weight. In addition, the atom must explain the basic feature of gravity, that atoms of different complexity fall at the same weight but require different forces to move against gravity. We also want an atom that will account for atomic decay as well as for matter's ability to produce light.
As we shall see, such an atom forms naturally from a single elementary particle with the opposing properties of affinity propensity and at rest motion, but before we do that, we need to explore the properties of this particle as opposed to the properties of the electron because what we are dealing with when we refer to the single particle is actually a modified electron. It is the electron we are familiar with, but one to which we have failed to assign the correct properties.
First, the electron science models has no motion of its own. This is simply absurd on its face. We know electrons move in a circuit and that circuits have neither a positive nor negative poll. In the case of inductive induced current, current that travels through a copper wire whose ends have been brought into contact, any electron that would be moving through the circuit would have to travel to both a positive and a negative pole if the circuit had poles, which it doesn’t.
The notion that electrons need polarity to move was a primitive concept made up by the early inventors and users of the battery, where the motive force appears to be the potential differences in the elements used but which merely is the flow of electrons between two potential differences, where the different potential differences seek to balance themselves (that’s how batteries wear out, the potential difference of the elements is no longer sufficient to produce a current flow).
Science knows for a fact that electrons orbit the nucleus of the modeled atom, but has no explanation for the electron's motion. It doesn’t even make an attempt, and it certainly ignores the likes repel rule applied to the protons. Why would electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom if they repelled one another?
So, it seems to be self-evident that the at rest motion we are talking about with the basic elementary particle is the at rest motion of the electron.
Now let’s tackle the likes repel, opposites attract fiction. If a magnet is allowed to move freely, one end always points to the North Pole. While it is only recently that science realized that naming this end of the magnet the north pole of the magnet contradicted it’s own likes repel dictate, the end of magnets that are designated north do repel each other. Perhaps science’s blindness in this area was the result of renaming the north south poles as negative and positive when they were applied to provide a reason for the movement of electricity in a battery. When the south end of a magnet come near the north end of a magnet, they attract, and it is this concept, a transfer of north south to negative and positive, that provided a basis for the movement of electricity. The positively charged particles were being attracted to the negative pole of the battery (now, as noted, the negative to the positive).
If the electrons that are the particles that represent electricity have at rest motion, there is no reason for polarity. But let’s look at the electrons with polarity in an electric wire. As we shall see, electrons move to where there is a deficit of affinity propensity, which is to say, they move from where they aren’t needed to where they are if a path is provided for them to move in. In the battery, two elements with potential differences have terminals. When connected, electrons flow from the element with the greater potential difference to the element with the lesser potential difference. (Potential difference, the electric property of an element, alters with temperature, a fact that we’ll later use to explain the origin of life, and a fact that also explains why your car batter won’t start no a very cold morning.)
The direction of flow is what’s important in the production of electricity. When electricity is produced by generators, it is attracted to the loads using the electricity, because those loads, by definition, have a deficit of electrons and therefore a deficit of affinity propensity.
Can you imagine electrons moving in a conductor if they all repelled each other? They wouldn’t be going anywhere because they’d all be trying to get away from each other before they even tried to get to the load.
For electricity to move through a conductor, it has to be cohesive, its particles have to all move in unison. To move in unison, they can’t be trying to repel each other, they have to come together, be a single flow.
The notion that opposites attract is probably as deep seated in our minds as the notion that gravity is proportional to and therefore a property of mass. It’s extremely difficult to visualize an electric world with no polarity, but as the opposing properties of at rest motion and affinity propensity explain physical reality after physical reality, the concept that there has to be opposites to obtain movement in the subatomic world drops away.
We have to remember that science does not have any notion of why magnets act as they do, and yet they willy-nilly apply surface explanations that explain nothing to other physical realities, clouding the understanding of those other physical realities. (We’ll be able to picture the forces at work in magnets after we construct the atom.)
The simple reality is, electrons attract one another. It is the only way to provide a physical explanation for electricity. Once sufficient electrons have been collected in a conductor, that conductor can be hooked up to a load and the electrons will, at their at rest speed less the resistance of the conductor, travel to the area of the conductor where there is a deficit of electrons, the load.
The conductor has to be made up of the atoms of an element that, when formed, can give up its own electrons to the flow while the flow replaces the electrons, providing the stability to keep the atoms of the element together (we’ll understand more about this in the next chapter on field replacement. Suffice it to say, if the element’s atoms won’t or can’t give up electrons, it can’t conduct, and if the electrical flow is too high for the conductor, its atoms will separate, the conductor will melt.)
(To be continued)

Saturday, September 15, 2007

The Atom

Thomas Edison ran into a problem when he was attempting to create the light bulb. He was using a carbon filament and was vexed by the fact that the carbon was coating the bulb. He decided that the electricity was not only flowing though the filament, it was flowing through the evacuated bulb. He made a bulb with a third electrode in an attempt to divert the flow and stop the blackening. He found that electricity did flow to this third filament but it didn’t stop the blackening, so he abandoned the effort, patenting the new bulb in the process.
In the light bulb, electricity flows through a filament. The filament, according to science, produces resistance to the flow of electricity and heats up, producing light. In short, light isn’t made up of the electricity that produces it. The loss of electricity is due to resistance, not to it being converted to light. If the filament in the bulb is separated, the filament with the incoming flow of electrons is called a cathode because it produces a stream of what are now known to be electrons. The cathode ray tube is the basis of television.
If, instead of evacuating the bulb entirely, a small amount of gas is left inside it, Edison’s effect can actually be seen as the gas becomes a conductor for the electrons with paths of electrons being emitted by the cathode lighting up. J. J. Thomson was the first to experiment with these mysterious rays called cathode rays that the cathode produced in gas. (Edison’s effect is grudgingly acknowledged as the basis of the diode, the old electronic tubes that were replaced by transistors, but not at all for the cathode ray tube that basically operates on the effect.)
Thomson was the first to demonstrate that cathode rays could be deflected by an electric field and were therefore negatively charged particles. So we have electricity going into a modified light bulb and producing flows of electrons. Why does science insist that the filament of the light bulb is not giving off electrons, but something else? As we get into the topic of the structure of light latter in the book, we’ll see that light is a structured from of the elementary particle described in the last chapter, and that elementary particle is the electron operating in the light bulb. It just seems to me that someone, somewhere, once it was determined that a light bulb could be modified in a way that simply separated its filament and produced flows of electrons, newly named by Thomson, would have wondered whether light was made up of electrons, but no, science thinks in compartmentalized structures that excludes thought. Besides, light is not deflected by an electric current (or at least by the electric currents of the day).
At the same time all of this was going on, people were discovering and experimenting with radioactive matter, matter that decayed and in the process gave off bits of itself. One of the bits was called an alpha particle, and alpha particles were what Rutherford, the constructor of our vision of the atom, enjoyed experimenting with. He noticed that when the alpha particles were directed at gold foil, some of them were deflected. Up until this point, everyone pictured the atom as a small, round ball. However, when Rutherford found a percentage of his alpha particles deflected by the foil, he reasoned that they were bouncing off something. As most of the atoms were passing through the foil with only minor deflection, he reasoned that the material was made up of atoms and those atoms were something other than little round balls.
Rutherford’s experiments with radiation had already identified an additional particle, the beta particle that he later determined to be an electron, so he already had Thomson’s electron in mind when he set about analyzing the nature of the structure of matter the alpha rays were encountering. He started to visualize a nucleus with shells of electrons orbiting it. Dimitri Mendeleev had long before put together the periodic table of elements, arranging them by weight. Rutherford accounted for weight, what is called mass today, by creating the neutron. To keep the electrons in orbit around the nucleus, he created the proton.
This model had two major defects as pointed out in the last chapter. There was no explanation for the electrons motion and protons, being positive, were supposed to follow the likes repel rule, and therefore, couldn’t stay together in the nucleus. Science solved the latter problem by creating a strong force to hold the protons together, but has totally ignored the source of the motion of the orbiting electrons.
(To be continued)

Friday, September 7, 2007

An Elementary Particle with Two Properties (conclusion)

The first question, of course, is what two properties should the particle have? If you look at the properties science makes up and assigns to particles, you’ll end up scratching your head. As in any endeavor, the first thing to do is to make sure we’re asking the right question. Here we want a particle that will describe all of operating reality, so the question becomes, what do we know about operating reality?
We know that operating reality, the galaxies and star systems they contain, are located in empty space, or in my vernacular, nothing. Going back to the definition of the universe in the Introduction, the universe is essentially matter in nothing. That matter comes in two forms, the solid matter that makes up the stars and the planets and the matter that make up the electromagnetic emission fields active stars and planets produce. As we are hypothesizing a universe that is made up of a single particle, the matter and whatever makes up the electromagnetic emission fields, are made up of the same particle, the basic element of matter.
The planets and stars and the electromagnetic emission fields they produce are grossly different manifestations of the same particle, but they should tell us something about the properties that particle needs if it is going to explain both.
Starting with solid matter, what do we know about it? We know one thing and one thing only about solid matter. Whatever it’s made of is conglomerated together and if it conglomerated together, it is held together by something. In today’s science, that something is the strong force, but the strong force wasn’t made up to hold matter together, it was made up to explain why like-charged protons in the nucleus of the atom didn’t fly apart. There is no explanation what holds the neutrons together other than, perhaps, the weak force made up to explain atomic decay.
With matter being held together, the basic particles that makes up matter must be attracted to one another. That’s a pretty simple proposition, so why not just make it one of the properties of the elementary particle?
It’s not a property without its limitations. I always find this difficult to explain, but using magnets as an example, let’s lay out several hundred identical coin-shaped magnets on a table. If we pick up two of the magnets, they will readily clamp together. If we add a third, it will clamp together with a little less force. Holding the magnetic chain vertically, we keep adding magnets to the bottom of the chain. We eventually reach a point at which the chain will hold no more magnets. The weight of the overall combination has overcome the ability of the magnetic force to hold it together.
What should we call the property of attraction of the elementary particle we are conceptualizing? I long ago termed this property the particle’s affinity propensity. Instead of saying the particles attracted one another because that's too much like opposites attract, I defined affinity propensity as the particle's affinity for occupying the same space as any other particle. While that gets us away from saying the particles attract one another, that’s clearly the result of each particle pressing to occupy the space of all other particles.
What does this have to do with our magnetic chain?
When two particles come together, the combined structure of the two has twice the affinity propensity of each individual particle. However, some of the affinity propensity of each particle has been used up holding the combined structure together. Of course, we aren’t dealing with a table full of magnets, we are dealing with particles the size of electrons, very, very small bits. In fact, I define the elementary particle’s size as being just large enough to define nothingness because we have defined nothingness by the existence of matter.
As more and more particles come together into a sphere, and they form a sphere because particles form on a surface in all directions, and all directions of a surface form a sphere, each particle adds affinity propensity but uses up some of the affinity propensity of both itself and the sphere in holding it to the growing sphere. Like the weight overcoming the magnetic chain’s magnetic ability to stay together, eventually the sphere doesn’t have enough affinity propensity to attract additional particles and it is as large as it can get.
This brings up two very important points, First, because all of the elementary particles are identical with an identical amount of affinity propensity, the resulting spheres, I refer to them as units, will be identical, or close to identical, all other factors considered (and we’ll cover those factors in the next chapter on the atom).
Of primary importance, though, the question that should have been hovering in the background of everyone’s mind is, what force are they holding themselves together against? The magnets were fighting weight, but here weight isn’t a factor. Why don’t these particles, with their affinity propensity, simply form a gigantic sphere, soaking up all the elementary particles in the universe into one big structure? What are they fighting against? What force is attempting to keep them from forming into the structure in the first place so that the particles have to use up their affinity propensity to form into the structure?
To answer this question, and find the second property of our basic particle, we have to look at the second form of matter, the electromagnetic emissions produced by the stars and the planets undergoing combustion. And here, we’ll have to take a small side trip into the word combustion. Most people are under the mistaken assumption that combustion is defined by the presence of oxygen, that when something burns, when it is undergoing combustion, it requires oxygen. This, of course, rules out calling what stars do as combusting, or undergoing combustion.
This sets combustion off from the fission or fusion process. Using labored reasoning, and the fact that science can only measure the elements on the surface of stars, and that element is hydrogen, science concluded, after the successful fusion process that supposedly occurs in a hydrogen bomb, that the sun's emissions are the result of fusion. Thus, in using a single particle to explain fire here on Earth (for which, by the way, science has no coherent explanation) and the fire that is burning on the surface of the sun, I have the same gut reaction I get when I claim that both light and electricity have induction fields around them (a subject that will become extremely important when we discuss gravity). Instead of attempting to follow my reasoning, and evidence, to the contrary, people tend to discount everything when I say that stars and the planets are combusting.
However, the dictionary definition of combustion is a chemical process that produces heat and light. It uses oxidation as an example, but the definition of a chemical process is not necessarily limited to oxidation. While fusion is not considered to be a chemical process, the scientific explanation for fusion is totally conceptual, and its application to the surface of a star ad hoc, we call it a hydrogen bomb, stars have hydrogen on their surfaces, therefore they’re the same. Science has no coherent explanation for what is happening for when something is burning. When we get to the chapter on field replacement, we’ll see exactly what makes a log burn on Earth and the sun burn in space.
Returning to the electromagnetic emissions themselves, what is the one thing we know about them that is factual? Things like being wave particles are conceptual, and specific characteristics such as those of light (diffraction grating, for instance) are factual, but not general. What is the one fact we know about the electromagnetic spectrum that is universal?
We know its speed!
What does knowing its speed tell us? It tells us that light moves from one place to another. Under Newton’s particle view, just like the planets, light didn’t need a source of motion. When light became a wave, its movement could easily be ascribed to a disturbance in an aether made up to account for its wave features. Toward the end of the 19th century, Maxwell produced his equations that placed light within the confines of the electromagnetic spectrum (light was still a wave), but these equations do not explain why light moves other than to produce a hazy picture of magnetic and electrical fields interacting with each other.
In short, no one has an inkling why light, or electromagnetic emissions, move.
Why not just admit that they are made up of a particle (which Einstein proved with his photoelectric effect), drop the wave idiocy, and assign the property of motion to the particle?
If we adopt motion as a property of our particle, then we have something that the affinity propensity has to overcome and which would therefore limit the size of the units the particles would form. We have a single particle with two opposing properties, one property tending to bring the particles together, the other seeking to have the particles return to their normal speed, which I call the particle’s at rest speed because when the particle is traveling at what we consider the speed of light, it is at rest with itself in so far as being able to move without hindrance. What better situation. All of matter has stored energy in it, the energy inherent in each of the particles that make up the matter, to overcome the affinity propensity and return to its at rest speed.
Isn’t this simply a physical description of Einstein’s e=m equation where the square of the speed of light merely demonstrates the staggering amount of energy stored, or rather at rest motion, overcome, by the affinity propensities that hold the matter together?
Of course, as soon as we have opposing properties in the same particle, we have two overriding questions, how did the particles come together in the first place or how do the affinity propensities overcome the at rest motion and how do the particles come apart or how does the at rest speed of the particles overcome their affinity propensities? How does matter come form in the first place and dissipate in electromagnetic emissions?
We won’t be able to answer these questions until we construct an atom and then subject it to field replacement.

Friday, August 31, 2007

An Elementary Particle with Two Properties (continued)

Does science therefore conclude that the electron has a property of movement? Absolutely not. In the case of the orbiting electrons, the source of the motion is a taboo subject.
Given the property they then placed in the electron, one wonders what kind of fractured minds established, consensus science attracts.
Remember back in the 17the century, the argument about the nature of light revolved around whether it was a particle or a wave. Newton’s massive influence set the stage for it being a particle throughout the 18th century, but Young’s experiment, performed at the opening of the 19th century, convinced the consensus that it was a wave. The amazing thing about these centuries of musing, analyzing, arguing, and concluding is that no one, not a single mind, bothered to ask the basic question about light, how was it produced? After all, knowing, or coming up with concepts involved with how light was produced would seem to be the first step in determining what light was.
But not our blundering scientists. They stumbled on down the path of defining the nature of light until Einstein discovered that light could produce electricity, or to be more precise, light could activate the new particle now accepted as the electron.
Did our esteemed and thoughtful scientists scratch their heads and say, hey, we were wrong about light being a wave? Why would they? Light was already proven to be a wave, that was incontrovertible, therefore, it was now necessary to define it also as particle, and a particle was quickly created called a photon, Einstein’s effect named the photoelectric effect, and all in the universe was now back in an orderly, understandable, arrangement. Of course, no one could visualize light as a wave or a particle, but what the heck, why be able to explain something when we can use words and phrases to trick ourselves into thinking we understand something?
But now with light a particle affecting an atom and the material undergoing the photoelectric effect phenomena being made up of atoms, it dawned on these quick minds, about three centuries after it should have been raised, how does matter produce light?
Having assigned two different particles to one phenomenon, the photoelectric effect, science had to explain how the one particle, the photon, could affect the other particle, the electron. The conclusion agreed upon (and note, all this stuff is a consensus, an agreement to agree on a certain set of concepts by a small group of theorists that the millions of honest, practicing scientists have to swallow whole) was that the electrons were emitted as a result of the absorption of the light. That’s about as duh a statement as can be made after determining that light and electricity were made up of two different particles.
Of course, there was good observational reason to assume that light and electricity weren’t the result of the same particle because light didn’t require positive or negative poles to cause it to move, in fact, when electricity was discovered, light was considered to be ripples in a made-up aether. Electricity was clearly something because it could do work while light wasn’t able to do anything. Electricity had polarity while light didn’t, a fact that has latter been disproved by measuring the magnetic forces that occur on filaments, or on the sun for that matter.
Probably the biggest argument I get against a single particle concept is light and electricity because on the surface they are radically different phenomena. However, as we go along, it becomes apparent that on a working level, on the level at which we need to understand how things operate, they are different manifestations of the same particle.
Once science determined that electrons were emitted as a result of the absorption of light, it dug deeper, as only it can with its shallow concepts, to find out how matter produces light. The secret, it turns out, is to add a new property to the electron, one that no one suspected it had up until creative thinkers decided to create it. This property was the ability of the electron to absorb and release energy.
Think of that for a moment. Here we have a particle made up solely to explain a phenomenon, electricity, we have no idea as to its working, it’s source, its means of motion, its ultimate fate. As a matter of fact, the best we can do is call it a moving charge. We take that particle and remove it from its context of being capable of doing work and we place it in a concept we create to explain matter, we put it in orbit around the nuclei of the atoms that make up all matter. Then, after originally saying we require polarity to cause it to move, we allow it to move in its atomic orbit without polarity, and say, hey, here’s something else it can do. It can absorb and emit light!
Post a large sign on science’s door, Genius at Work, then sit back and try and figure out what a genius is. It’s someone who can say, to paraphrase the search for the Scarlet Pimpernel, they seek them here, they seek them there, they seek them everywhere. In short, the electrons circling the atom are probabilities whose location can never be fixed. However, one thing is known with certainty about an electrons location and that’s its energy level with respect to the nucleus, which translates to its distance from the nucleus. If undisturbed by incoming photons, the nucleus binds the electron tightly, as close to it as it can. That means that the electron is at its lowest energy level.
It’s when the photons start streaming in that the electrons exercise their new property of being energized. At their lowest energy level, they are at the ground state. When a photon arrives with enough energy to energize the electron, the electron, get this, the electron absorbs the photon and the electron jumps a further distance from the nucleus. Now the electron is in an excited (science’s word, not mine) state. As we all know, being in a excited state is not our normal state, so just like we settle down sooner or later, the electron settles down.
How does it do this? It gives up it photon and thus matter produces light. How simple is that? Worthy of simpletons.
Just like we have various levels of excitement, an electron can get more and more excited by absorbing more and more photons until it gets so excited, it jumps out of its skin, or shell, or atom. Thus, the photoelectric effect is explained, sort of, and also the fact that atoms ionize, become charged by losing electrons.
As the 20th century went along, the creation of particles became the way to fame and fortune. With the invention of cloud chambers and cyclotrons, particles became so numerous, no one could keep track. As a result, an international conference was held to limit the number of particles, and the result was the standard model, which we won’t spend time going into because it is just a complex way to explain atomic decay, which I will explain in a very simple way). However, it’s interesting to note that with the limitation of particles, the allowed particles had to be expanded somehow. With the ever-inventive scientific mind at work, certain particles were imbued with human characteristics, charm, flavor, even color and, of course, the electron with its ability to absorb photons like we absorb food then give them off like we burn calories.
One might think that the conceptualization of a single particle that could be used to explain not only the phenomena that are now explained inconsistently by the invention of multiple particles, but also phenomena that remain unexplainable, would be welcome, but there are too many reputations invested in the myriad particle mess. One would think that conceptualizing a mere two properties for the particle might also be welcomed, but science, once its course is set, and science’s course was set centuries ago by dead men who knew nothing, will never change its course. If light is found to be a particle instead of a wave, it’s still a wave, a wave particle, a probability, anything that appears to provide an answer to the great unwashed (and that’s anything that defies reason).
When Rutherford modeled the atom with orbital electrons, he ignored the source of the motion of the electrons. He also made another little mistake. He put a bunch of protons in the nucleus of the atom to hold the electrons in orbit. Opposites attract, remember. Well, he forgot that likes repel. Of course, this whole business of moving magnetic description first into the operation of a battery, then induced electricity and finally into a model of an atom is absurd, having no basis in reality other than shabby thinking. However, there we were with an atom stuffed with like charges that should be repelling but weren’t. What to do? What to do?
Well, science, if nothing else, is inventive. If we have like forces repelling these protons, protons that, by the way, we made up and imbued with the like forces, then there must be a greater force holding those electrons together. We know the force is there because otherwise the protons wouldn’t be together. So we’ll make up this force and call it what it is, the strong force (as opposed to the weak force that allows the nucleus to decay). The strong force holds the nucleus of the atom together and as atoms combined to produce matter, the strong force is at the basis of matter.
Sounds good, doesn’t it. We make up a neutron to account for weight, we make up a proton to account for maintaining another particle we made up, the electron, in orbit. We have that electron whizzing around with no apparent force interacting with electrons of other atoms to produce molecules that form into matter. We also have that electron bouncing up and down in its orbit absorbing and emitting the wave particles that are photons, light to us, and that’s how the universe operates.
So let’s see what a single particle with two properties will look like. First I’ll cover the properties, then in the next chapter we’ll use it to build a workable atom. Then we’ll cover field replacement, the simple principle that replaces the myriad particles of the atom with their color and charm and, well, total confusion, completely beyond reason.
To be continued

Saturday, August 25, 2007

An Elementary Particle with Two Properties

I suspect that the habit of naming particles for effects and then thinking that the name described the effect began with the discovery of electricity. The development of electrical theory is probably one of the more perverted areas of science. It reaches back into the mysterious effects of magnetism, where the well-known principle of likes repel and opposites attract became seated in the human mind for all eternity. Take two magnets, determine which side is which by allowing one of the sides to point to the north, mark that side on each magnet. The marked sides will repel while the unmarked sides will attract the marked sides.
Magnets were beyond understanding, so studies were devoted to merely describing their effects, a habit that has carried over into all areas of science, and especially electricity. This is a deadly process. It destroys understanding. People think that being able to describe what’s happening, they understand what’s happening. Description replaces understanding, but because we have a complex description, we think we understand. Saying monkey-like that likes repel and opposites attract doesn’t tell us anything about how magnets work, and when we don’t know how something works, we shouldn't analogize it to other things.
But that’s what happened when the first batteries generated a steady current. The battery needed two metals with what is now known as potential differences (a very important reality to the development of our understanding of how the universe operates). With two poles attached to each metal, connecting a conductor between the two produced an electric flow. With something flowing, science wanted an answer, what is causing that something to move? It’s an obvious question, and it’s a simple fact of reality that things don’t move without something causing them to move (unless we’re talking about the planets). There had to be something causing the current to move from one pole to the other.
Unfortunately, it was quickly discovered that the electrical current would deflect a magnet in the form of a compass. This meant that there was something about magnets and electricity that was similar. In casting about for an explanation for the movement of the current, it occurred to science that opposites attract. It therefore concluded, without any evidence, that the two poles of the battery were like the opposite ends of a magnet, and that when they were connected, electricity flowed from the positive to the negative (nowadays it is understood to flow from negative to positive).
The notion that electricity needs a positive pole in order to move, that whatever causes it can’t move on its own, was set in science’s thought process when the next advance in electricity occurred some three decades later. With batteries providing a constant source of electricity, scientists were able to conduct repeatable experiments and build on the results. It was finally discovered that moving a wire that had been formed into a circuit perpendicular to the electrical flow itself produced an electrical flow.
It wasn’t until the beginning of the 20th century that science became obsessed with particles so no one knew what the electricity was, but here was a distinct phenomenon, the flow of electricity itself creating a flow, a fact that was to become the basis of our modern technological society in the form of generators and electric motors. Needing names to describe what was happening, science named the area around the electric flow that could produce electricity in a circuit moving perpendicular to it the inductive field, something that will become of the utmost importance in our subsequent discussions as it is the force generated by electromagnetic emissions that produces gravity and planetary rotation and orbiting.
Edison, using simply the facts of electricity rather than the hazy theories about what electricity was, produced thousands of inventions that eventually lit up the world. He was a direct current advocate, which is the process of using a generator to induce an electrical flow in one direction. Tesla, another inventor, realized that by manipulating the way the rotors moved though the magnetic fields of the generator, he could produce alternating current, current that at one instant flows in one direction, and in the next, in the opposite direction. Tesla was responsible for our modern electrical system because alternating current could be manipulated better than direct current and travel longer distances.
The point of both, however, is that they were working with what they conceived to be flows of electricity and these flows needed something to make them move. Just like the concept that electricity moved from negative to positive became embedded in the universal mind, the concept of flows of electricity became inherent in electrical concepts without much reference to flows of what. However, J. J. Thomson altered that view by proposing that electricity was made up of flows of electrons, and interestingly enough, he thought that all matter was ultimately made up of electrons, a novel idea that, if it had been followed, would have probably made this book unnecessary (and my life not as exciting as it has been figuring all this out).
Here we end up with two assumptions. The first is that electricity needs a current force to cause it to move. The second is that a particle can be created to explain physical effects.
The idea that electricity needs a current force to cause it to move seems logical when we look at a battery, but seems illogical when we look at currents induced by inductive fields. In the battery, we have two potential differences that, when connected, produce an electrical flow. The normal question is to ask, what is causing the flow, now we can say electrons, to flow? However, when we move a conductor in an inductive field, electrons begin to flow if the conductor is formed into a circuit.
The idea for positive negative, plus minus came from a magnet. Did anyone bother to ask what is causing the magnetic fields around the magnet? No, because they were considered this mysterious force that was associated with magnetic material. But moving a conducting circuit in a magnetic field produces a flow of electricity too. More to the point, the circuit is a circuit with no negative or positive poles like the magnet, so where’s the explanation for the current movement of the electrons?
When Thomson hypothesized the electron, he was setting up the second assumption, one that has overpowered science. This assumption is that we can simply explain effects by calling them a particle and assigning a name to them. Rutherford was the first to do this in his very useful concept of an atom. Taking Thomson’s electron as a starting point, he hypothesized that these electrons were orbiting the nuclei of atoms in shells, depending on the type of atom involved. Atoms became heavier according to the periodic table set out by Dmitry Mendeleyev in the 1870s. Rutherford accounted for weight by creating a particle he called a neutron and putting it in the nucleus of the atom. He then had to explain what was keeping the electrons in orbit. True to his ingrained teaching about negative and positive, he created a proton, a positive particle, and also placed it in the nucleus of the atom. The neutrons provided weight, the protons provided an attraction for the electrons, and the electrons, nestled in neat little orbits, provided the way atoms were put together into matter.
Rutherford, however, overlooked one small aspect of his model. The electrons were moving. They didn’t have batteries for polarity, they didn’t have a circuit in which lazy minds could overlook the lack of polarity, they were just, well, moving.
To be continued