Friday, September 21, 2007

The Atom (continued)

It’s clear that Rutherford took certain criteria that his model of an atom had to meet and then designed the atom to meet those criteria, but by failing to take into consideration the likes repel aspect of putting protons together in the nucleus and accounting for the motion of the electrons around the nucleus, his model is insufficient. There’s another area in which Rutherford’s model failed. That was in modeling an atom that could produce light, a failure that a whole new field of science, quantum mechanics, was created to gloss over.
We want to build an atom that explains solid matter and accounts for weight. In addition, the atom must explain the basic feature of gravity, that atoms of different complexity fall at the same weight but require different forces to move against gravity. We also want an atom that will account for atomic decay as well as for matter's ability to produce light.
As we shall see, such an atom forms naturally from a single elementary particle with the opposing properties of affinity propensity and at rest motion, but before we do that, we need to explore the properties of this particle as opposed to the properties of the electron because what we are dealing with when we refer to the single particle is actually a modified electron. It is the electron we are familiar with, but one to which we have failed to assign the correct properties.
First, the electron science models has no motion of its own. This is simply absurd on its face. We know electrons move in a circuit and that circuits have neither a positive nor negative poll. In the case of inductive induced current, current that travels through a copper wire whose ends have been brought into contact, any electron that would be moving through the circuit would have to travel to both a positive and a negative pole if the circuit had poles, which it doesn’t.
The notion that electrons need polarity to move was a primitive concept made up by the early inventors and users of the battery, where the motive force appears to be the potential differences in the elements used but which merely is the flow of electrons between two potential differences, where the different potential differences seek to balance themselves (that’s how batteries wear out, the potential difference of the elements is no longer sufficient to produce a current flow).
Science knows for a fact that electrons orbit the nucleus of the modeled atom, but has no explanation for the electron's motion. It doesn’t even make an attempt, and it certainly ignores the likes repel rule applied to the protons. Why would electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom if they repelled one another?
So, it seems to be self-evident that the at rest motion we are talking about with the basic elementary particle is the at rest motion of the electron.
Now let’s tackle the likes repel, opposites attract fiction. If a magnet is allowed to move freely, one end always points to the North Pole. While it is only recently that science realized that naming this end of the magnet the north pole of the magnet contradicted it’s own likes repel dictate, the end of magnets that are designated north do repel each other. Perhaps science’s blindness in this area was the result of renaming the north south poles as negative and positive when they were applied to provide a reason for the movement of electricity in a battery. When the south end of a magnet come near the north end of a magnet, they attract, and it is this concept, a transfer of north south to negative and positive, that provided a basis for the movement of electricity. The positively charged particles were being attracted to the negative pole of the battery (now, as noted, the negative to the positive).
If the electrons that are the particles that represent electricity have at rest motion, there is no reason for polarity. But let’s look at the electrons with polarity in an electric wire. As we shall see, electrons move to where there is a deficit of affinity propensity, which is to say, they move from where they aren’t needed to where they are if a path is provided for them to move in. In the battery, two elements with potential differences have terminals. When connected, electrons flow from the element with the greater potential difference to the element with the lesser potential difference. (Potential difference, the electric property of an element, alters with temperature, a fact that we’ll later use to explain the origin of life, and a fact that also explains why your car batter won’t start no a very cold morning.)
The direction of flow is what’s important in the production of electricity. When electricity is produced by generators, it is attracted to the loads using the electricity, because those loads, by definition, have a deficit of electrons and therefore a deficit of affinity propensity.
Can you imagine electrons moving in a conductor if they all repelled each other? They wouldn’t be going anywhere because they’d all be trying to get away from each other before they even tried to get to the load.
For electricity to move through a conductor, it has to be cohesive, its particles have to all move in unison. To move in unison, they can’t be trying to repel each other, they have to come together, be a single flow.
The notion that opposites attract is probably as deep seated in our minds as the notion that gravity is proportional to and therefore a property of mass. It’s extremely difficult to visualize an electric world with no polarity, but as the opposing properties of at rest motion and affinity propensity explain physical reality after physical reality, the concept that there has to be opposites to obtain movement in the subatomic world drops away.
We have to remember that science does not have any notion of why magnets act as they do, and yet they willy-nilly apply surface explanations that explain nothing to other physical realities, clouding the understanding of those other physical realities. (We’ll be able to picture the forces at work in magnets after we construct the atom.)
The simple reality is, electrons attract one another. It is the only way to provide a physical explanation for electricity. Once sufficient electrons have been collected in a conductor, that conductor can be hooked up to a load and the electrons will, at their at rest speed less the resistance of the conductor, travel to the area of the conductor where there is a deficit of electrons, the load.
The conductor has to be made up of the atoms of an element that, when formed, can give up its own electrons to the flow while the flow replaces the electrons, providing the stability to keep the atoms of the element together (we’ll understand more about this in the next chapter on field replacement. Suffice it to say, if the element’s atoms won’t or can’t give up electrons, it can’t conduct, and if the electrical flow is too high for the conductor, its atoms will separate, the conductor will melt.)
(To be continued)

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