Friday, August 31, 2007

An Elementary Particle with Two Properties (continued)

Does science therefore conclude that the electron has a property of movement? Absolutely not. In the case of the orbiting electrons, the source of the motion is a taboo subject.
Given the property they then placed in the electron, one wonders what kind of fractured minds established, consensus science attracts.
Remember back in the 17the century, the argument about the nature of light revolved around whether it was a particle or a wave. Newton’s massive influence set the stage for it being a particle throughout the 18th century, but Young’s experiment, performed at the opening of the 19th century, convinced the consensus that it was a wave. The amazing thing about these centuries of musing, analyzing, arguing, and concluding is that no one, not a single mind, bothered to ask the basic question about light, how was it produced? After all, knowing, or coming up with concepts involved with how light was produced would seem to be the first step in determining what light was.
But not our blundering scientists. They stumbled on down the path of defining the nature of light until Einstein discovered that light could produce electricity, or to be more precise, light could activate the new particle now accepted as the electron.
Did our esteemed and thoughtful scientists scratch their heads and say, hey, we were wrong about light being a wave? Why would they? Light was already proven to be a wave, that was incontrovertible, therefore, it was now necessary to define it also as particle, and a particle was quickly created called a photon, Einstein’s effect named the photoelectric effect, and all in the universe was now back in an orderly, understandable, arrangement. Of course, no one could visualize light as a wave or a particle, but what the heck, why be able to explain something when we can use words and phrases to trick ourselves into thinking we understand something?
But now with light a particle affecting an atom and the material undergoing the photoelectric effect phenomena being made up of atoms, it dawned on these quick minds, about three centuries after it should have been raised, how does matter produce light?
Having assigned two different particles to one phenomenon, the photoelectric effect, science had to explain how the one particle, the photon, could affect the other particle, the electron. The conclusion agreed upon (and note, all this stuff is a consensus, an agreement to agree on a certain set of concepts by a small group of theorists that the millions of honest, practicing scientists have to swallow whole) was that the electrons were emitted as a result of the absorption of the light. That’s about as duh a statement as can be made after determining that light and electricity were made up of two different particles.
Of course, there was good observational reason to assume that light and electricity weren’t the result of the same particle because light didn’t require positive or negative poles to cause it to move, in fact, when electricity was discovered, light was considered to be ripples in a made-up aether. Electricity was clearly something because it could do work while light wasn’t able to do anything. Electricity had polarity while light didn’t, a fact that has latter been disproved by measuring the magnetic forces that occur on filaments, or on the sun for that matter.
Probably the biggest argument I get against a single particle concept is light and electricity because on the surface they are radically different phenomena. However, as we go along, it becomes apparent that on a working level, on the level at which we need to understand how things operate, they are different manifestations of the same particle.
Once science determined that electrons were emitted as a result of the absorption of light, it dug deeper, as only it can with its shallow concepts, to find out how matter produces light. The secret, it turns out, is to add a new property to the electron, one that no one suspected it had up until creative thinkers decided to create it. This property was the ability of the electron to absorb and release energy.
Think of that for a moment. Here we have a particle made up solely to explain a phenomenon, electricity, we have no idea as to its working, it’s source, its means of motion, its ultimate fate. As a matter of fact, the best we can do is call it a moving charge. We take that particle and remove it from its context of being capable of doing work and we place it in a concept we create to explain matter, we put it in orbit around the nuclei of the atoms that make up all matter. Then, after originally saying we require polarity to cause it to move, we allow it to move in its atomic orbit without polarity, and say, hey, here’s something else it can do. It can absorb and emit light!
Post a large sign on science’s door, Genius at Work, then sit back and try and figure out what a genius is. It’s someone who can say, to paraphrase the search for the Scarlet Pimpernel, they seek them here, they seek them there, they seek them everywhere. In short, the electrons circling the atom are probabilities whose location can never be fixed. However, one thing is known with certainty about an electrons location and that’s its energy level with respect to the nucleus, which translates to its distance from the nucleus. If undisturbed by incoming photons, the nucleus binds the electron tightly, as close to it as it can. That means that the electron is at its lowest energy level.
It’s when the photons start streaming in that the electrons exercise their new property of being energized. At their lowest energy level, they are at the ground state. When a photon arrives with enough energy to energize the electron, the electron, get this, the electron absorbs the photon and the electron jumps a further distance from the nucleus. Now the electron is in an excited (science’s word, not mine) state. As we all know, being in a excited state is not our normal state, so just like we settle down sooner or later, the electron settles down.
How does it do this? It gives up it photon and thus matter produces light. How simple is that? Worthy of simpletons.
Just like we have various levels of excitement, an electron can get more and more excited by absorbing more and more photons until it gets so excited, it jumps out of its skin, or shell, or atom. Thus, the photoelectric effect is explained, sort of, and also the fact that atoms ionize, become charged by losing electrons.
As the 20th century went along, the creation of particles became the way to fame and fortune. With the invention of cloud chambers and cyclotrons, particles became so numerous, no one could keep track. As a result, an international conference was held to limit the number of particles, and the result was the standard model, which we won’t spend time going into because it is just a complex way to explain atomic decay, which I will explain in a very simple way). However, it’s interesting to note that with the limitation of particles, the allowed particles had to be expanded somehow. With the ever-inventive scientific mind at work, certain particles were imbued with human characteristics, charm, flavor, even color and, of course, the electron with its ability to absorb photons like we absorb food then give them off like we burn calories.
One might think that the conceptualization of a single particle that could be used to explain not only the phenomena that are now explained inconsistently by the invention of multiple particles, but also phenomena that remain unexplainable, would be welcome, but there are too many reputations invested in the myriad particle mess. One would think that conceptualizing a mere two properties for the particle might also be welcomed, but science, once its course is set, and science’s course was set centuries ago by dead men who knew nothing, will never change its course. If light is found to be a particle instead of a wave, it’s still a wave, a wave particle, a probability, anything that appears to provide an answer to the great unwashed (and that’s anything that defies reason).
When Rutherford modeled the atom with orbital electrons, he ignored the source of the motion of the electrons. He also made another little mistake. He put a bunch of protons in the nucleus of the atom to hold the electrons in orbit. Opposites attract, remember. Well, he forgot that likes repel. Of course, this whole business of moving magnetic description first into the operation of a battery, then induced electricity and finally into a model of an atom is absurd, having no basis in reality other than shabby thinking. However, there we were with an atom stuffed with like charges that should be repelling but weren’t. What to do? What to do?
Well, science, if nothing else, is inventive. If we have like forces repelling these protons, protons that, by the way, we made up and imbued with the like forces, then there must be a greater force holding those electrons together. We know the force is there because otherwise the protons wouldn’t be together. So we’ll make up this force and call it what it is, the strong force (as opposed to the weak force that allows the nucleus to decay). The strong force holds the nucleus of the atom together and as atoms combined to produce matter, the strong force is at the basis of matter.
Sounds good, doesn’t it. We make up a neutron to account for weight, we make up a proton to account for maintaining another particle we made up, the electron, in orbit. We have that electron whizzing around with no apparent force interacting with electrons of other atoms to produce molecules that form into matter. We also have that electron bouncing up and down in its orbit absorbing and emitting the wave particles that are photons, light to us, and that’s how the universe operates.
So let’s see what a single particle with two properties will look like. First I’ll cover the properties, then in the next chapter we’ll use it to build a workable atom. Then we’ll cover field replacement, the simple principle that replaces the myriad particles of the atom with their color and charm and, well, total confusion, completely beyond reason.
To be continued

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